Лондон, 1648 год
Один из первых документов (по крайней мере более раннего мы не нашли) который регулировал бы на законодательном уровне профилактику и тушение пожаров используя именно эти термины. Примечательно, что он был издан в 1648 году, то есть за год до "Наказа о градском благочинии", который ошибочно считается годом создания российской пожарной охраны.
Соmmunе Concilium tent’ in Camera Guildald’ Civitatis London die Veneris, decimo quintо die Novembris, Anno Domini 1667. Annoque Regni Domini noftri CAROLI Secundi, Dei Gratia, Anglia, Scotia, Francia & Hibernia Regis, Fidei Defenforis, &c. decimo nono, coram Willielmo Peake Milite, Majore Civitatis London, Thoma Aleyn Milite & Baronetto, Aldermanno, Johanne Lawrence, Thoma Bludworth, Willielmo Bolton, Willielmo Turner, Willielmo Hooker, Militibus, Aldermannis, Francifco Afty Armigero, Aldermanno, ac Dionyfio Gauden Thoma Davis Militibus, Aldermannis, & Vicecomitibus ejufdem Civitut, nec non majore parte Communiariorum de Communi Concilio ejufdem Civitat' tunc & ibidem affemblat’.
Hereas the late fierce and outragious FIRE which happened in this City (continuing violently, to the great astonifhment of all Beholders, more than the space of four Days and four Nights) burnt, destroyed and consumed the greatest part of the Churches and Dwelling-houses, rendring very many of the inhabitants calamitous, and much impoverished by the great Losses they sustained, and is by all justly refented as a most fad and dismal Judgment of Heaven: For the Prevention, Avoiding and Suppressing (as much as Humane Prudence is capable of) the like deplorable (and ftill too too vifible) Events, and dreadful Danger of Fire for the future, within this City, and Liberties thereof, Be it Ordained, Enaed and Eftablifhed by the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, the Aldermen his Brethren, and the Commons in this Common Council affembled, and by the Authority of the fame, in manner and form following; that is to fay.
I. That the City, and the Liberties thereof, fhall be divided and appointed into four equal Parts or Quarters; and the Eaft Part or Quarter to contain thefe Wards following, viz. Portfoken, Aldgate, Tower, Billingfgate, Bridge, Langborn, and Lime-ftreet; the Weft Part or Quarter to contain Farringdon within, Farringdon without, Caftle-Baynard, Cheapfide, and Alderfgate; the North part or Quarter to contain Cornbil, Broadftreet, Colemanftreet, Baffifbaw, Bifhopfgate, and Cripplegate; and the South Part or Quarter to contain Queenhith, Breadftreet, Vintry, Cordwainer, Dowgate, Walbrook, and Candlewick-ftreet.
II. Item, That every of the faid Quarters fhall be furnifhed and provided, at or before the Feaft of the Birth of our Lord God next enfuing, of Eight Hundred Leathern Buckets, Fifty Ladders, viz. Ten Forty two Foot long, Ten Thirty Foot long, Ten Twenty Foot long, Ten Sixteen Foot long, and Ten Twelve Foot long; long; as аlfо of fo many Hand-Squirts of Brafs as will furnifh Two for every Parifh, Four and twenty Pickax-Sledges, and Forty Shod shovels.
III. Item, That every one of the Twelve Companies provide and keep in readineft Thirty Buckets, One Engine , Six Pickax-Sledges, Three Ladders, and Two Hand-Squirts of Brafs.
IV. Item, That all the other inferiour Companies provide and keep in readineft Buckets and Engines proportionable to their Abilities, of which thofe leaft able, to provide portable Engines to carry up Stairs into any Rooms or Tops of Houfes, the number of which Buckets and Engines to be from time to time preferibed and allotted by the Lord Mayor, and Court of Aldermens Direction.
V. Item, That every Alderman who hath paffed the Office of Shrievalty, provide Four and Twenty Buckets, and One Hand-Squirt of Brafs, and all thofe who have hot been Sheriffs, Twelve Buckets, and One Hand-Squirt of Braft, to be kept at their refpective Dwellings: and all other principal Citizens and Inhabitants, and every other perfon being а Subfidy-man, or of the degree of a Subfidy-man, fhall provide and keep in their Houfes a certain number of Buckets, according to their quality.
VI. Item, That the feveral Inhabitants and Furniture of cach reflexive Quarter fhall remain and abide within their own Quarters, and not go out farther; excepting ing onely fuch ferviceable perfons of other Quarters fit to take pains in that behalf, who may be called to yield their help as need fhall require; and none other Perfons or Furniture, without fpecial Order of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs for the time being.
VII. Item, It is farther Ordained by the Authority aforefaid, That in every of the faid Quarters or Parts of this City, by the Advice of the Alderman and Common Council of each feveral Ward within that Quarter, there fhall be chofen , retained and appointed for each Ward one honeft and fufficient perfon, dwelling within the fame, to be Bell-man there, who fhall from henceforth every Night, from the Feaft of St. Michael, until the Aununciation of St. Mary, diligently walk up and down within the fame Ward, from Ten of the Clock in the Night, till Five of the Clock next Morning. Their Wages or Salaries to be levied within their refpective Wards, according as the fame fhall be affeffed by the Common Council of the fame Ward, or the greateft part of them.
VIII. Item, That every Houfholder upon any Cry of Fire, fhall place a lufficient man at his Door well armed, and hang out a Light at his Door, if in the Nighttime, upon default whereof, every party offending, fhall forfeit Twenty fhillings.
IX. Item, That every Houfholder fhall, during the time of any Fire, have Water in a Veffel ready at his Door to quench, and fupprefs all farther Encreafe of the Fire.
X. Item, That in every of the faid four Quarters or Parts of this City a noted Bell be rung from Lady-day to Michaelmas at ten of the Clock every Night, and at five of the Clock every Morning; and from Michaelmas to Lady-day at eight of the Clock every Night, and feven of the Clock every Morning; at which refpective Hours the Watch fhall punctually fit and rife, who as foon as they are met together, one out of every Watch fhall be fent the Rounds into every part of the Ward, and at his return another fhall be fent out, and fo fucceffively all Night long without intermiffion, for Prevention of Fire, Robbing, or other Inconvenience.
XI. Item, That every Inhabitant prepare feme fecure place in their Dwellings (not under or near any Staircafe) to lay in their Seacole-Afhes, Embers, or any other fort of Fire-Afbes; and that the faid Afhes be quenched with water every Night before they go to Bed: and that all Confiables make inquiry of the Security of Hearths, Ovens, and Stoves, and places for laying Fire-Afhes in, twice every year.
XII. Item, That Plugs be put into the Pipes in the moft convenient places of every Street, whereof all Inhabitants may take notice, that breaking of the Pipes in diforderly manner may be avoided.
XIII. Item, That as many Wells as can be found may be provided in every Street, with Pumps, placed conveniently for furnifhing of Water, efpecially in Frofty weather, when other Water may be fcarce.
XIV. Item, That the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, as alfo the Deputies and Common-Council-men of fuch Ward where any Fire fhall happen, have fpeedy notice thereof by feveral Meffengers to be difpatched from the Conftables upon the firft Difcovery.
XV. Item, That at all fuch times the Lord Mayor beattended with all his officers, with the Marshalls and all their men, as alfo the City Workmen and their Labourers, the Bridg-masters with the Bridg-house Officers and Workmen, and their Labourers, who are all upon notice of any Fire forthwith to repair to the Lord Mayor, and to obferve fuch Directions as fhall be given them; the Sheriffs alfo to be attended with all their Officers , upon pain to them of forfeiting Three pounds in default of fuch their Attendance.
XVI. Item, That the feveral Companies of Carpenters, Bricklayers , Plaisterers, Painters, Masons, Smiths, Plummers, and Paviers, do yearly for each Company elect two Mafter-Workmen, four Journey-men, eight Apprentices, and fixteen Labourers, to be ready upon all occafions of Fire to attend the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs for quenching the fame.
XVII. Item, That all Workmen and Labourers belonging to any publick Water-works within the City, the Seacole-meters, Porters, Blackwel-hall Porters, Leaden-hall Porters, Ticket-Porters, and Package-Porters, do conftantly attend the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs in fuch Service; and that a Lift of all the Names of the aforementioned perfons, with the places of their Aboad, be brought yearly in a Table to the Lord Mayor elect upon the firft day of October, to be placed in the Hall ef the faid Lord Mayor to publick view; and that henceforth the Admittances of all fuch perfons may be upon the fame Condition.
ХVIII. Item, That all perfons, unlefs fuch as are imployed or allowed by the Lord Mayor or Sheriffs, Aldermen, Deputies , or Common Council-men , do keep (during the time of any Fire) within their own Dwellings, until they are fummoned to give their Aid; that fo Diforder and Confufion in the Streets may be prevented.
XIX. Item, That all the Conftables and Watchmen of the Ward where any Fire happens, affemble immediately at fuch place, and there attend on the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, and follow their Directions.
XX. Item, That all Brokers on the Exchange (according to their Obligation at their Admittance) do attend, in order to take care for fuch Goods and Houfhold-ftuff as may be removed.
XXI. Item, That yearly there be chofen fome able Citizen and skilfull Engineer, to attend the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs or any of them upon fuch Accident, who by their Advice is to give his Affiftance, and to blow up by their Directions fuch Houfes whereby the Encrcafe of the Fire may be moft probably prevented; and that Labourers be appointed to attend fuch Engineer.
XXII. Item, That the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs, Deputies, Common-Council-men, Engineer, and all perfons appointed and required by the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs to be aiding in fuppreffing and extinguifhing the Fire, by blowing up, or pulling down Houfes, fhall be indempnified by this Court.
XXIII. Item, That all perfons whofe Houfes fhall be blown up, or otherwife demolifhed, for the prevention of the Encreafe of Fire, fhall have fuch Damages as the Common Council fhall award; and that all perfons labouring therein, fhall be rewarded, as by Order of the Court of Aldermen fhall be appointed; and that a Rate be laid by the Common Council on the remaining Houfes of the City and Liberties for fatisfying thereof.
XXIV. Item, That once a Quarter the Deputy and Common-Council of every Ward return Certificates to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, of the Numbers and Condition of their Buckets, Engines, Ladders; and all other Neceffaries of that nature, and the Engineer to examine the fame, that on all occafions they may be found in readinefs; and that the Certificates of Miehaelmas Quarter, be returned as well to the Lord Mayor elect, as to the Lord Mayor.
XXV. Item, That fuch quantities of Powder as fhall be thought fit by the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, fhall be provided by the feveral Wards, and the feveral Companies of this City refpectively, and laid up in fuch convenient places as the faid Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen fhall from time to time direct and appoint; and that the principal Engineer make trial of all fuch Powder, that being fatisfied of the ftrength and goodnefs thereof, he may the better ufe it accordingly.
XXVI. Item, That no perfon whatfoever be hence-forth permitted at any time to make, or caufe to be made any fort of Fire-works, or to fire, or caufe to be fired any fuch Fire-works, within the City or Liberties thereof, except fuch perfons onely as fhall be thereunto appointed by His MAJESTY, or any lawful Authority under Him.
XXVII. Item, That no Gunpowder be kept within the Walls of the City (except, as aforefaid) but in fuch fecure places as fhall be allowed and approved of by the Court of Aldermen.
XXVII. Lastly, That no perfon lay Hemp, Flax, Wax, Gunpowder, Pitch, Tarr, Brimstone, Rofin, or the like combuftible Commodities, in any Cellar, Warehoufe, or other place on that fide next the Street, which by the fhaking of Links, Torches, or calling in of other Fire at the Windows next the Street, may be in danger of fuch Fire.
And it is farther Enacted and Ordained by the Authority aforefaid, That all and fingular the Peins, Penalties and Forfeitures, which fhall be forfeited or incurred by virtue of this Аct, fhall be obtained, levied and recovered, either by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint, or Information, formation, in the name of the Chamberlain of the faid City for the time being, in the KINGS MAJESTY’s Court holden in the Chamber of the Guildhall of the faid City, before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the faid City for the time being;
in which no Effoign, Protection, or Wager of Law fhall be admitted or allowed for the Defendant: and the Chamberlain of the faid City for the time being, in all Suits to be porfecuted by virtue of this Act against any Offender or Offenders, fhall recover the ordinary Cofts of Suit, to be expended in or about the profecution of them, or any of them: And that all fuch Perns, Penalties and Forfeitures (the Charges of Suit for Recovery thereof being firft deducted) fhall be divided into two equal Parts, one Moyety whereof to be paid unto the Treafurer of Christ’s Hospital (for the time being) to be imployed towards the Maintenance of the poor Children harboured and kept in the faid Hospital ; and the other Moyety to him or them that will fue for the fame, any other Act or Ordinance to the contrary thereof notwithstanding.